Hîvika biadan

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Nexşeya Hîvika biadan

Hîvika biadan[1] yan Hîvika bi adanî[2] (bi înglîzî: Fertile Crescent) li Rojhilata Navîn herêmeke bi şiklê hîvikê ye, ku tê de hin beşên Iraq, Îran, Sûriye, Lubnan, Filistîn, Îsraîl, Urdun, Misir û Tirkiyeyê hene.[3][4] Li gorî hin nivîskaran Kîpros jî tê de ye.

Herêm yek ji dergûşên medeniyetê ye ji ber ku ew li devera ku çandiniya niştecîh yekem car derketiye holê dema ku mirovan dest bi pêvajoya paqijkirin û guherîna nebatên xwezayî kirin da ku nebatên nû werin kedîkirin. Medeniyetên pêşîn yên weke Sumeriyan li Mezopotamyayê di encama wê de çêbûne. Pêşkeftinên teknolojîk ên li herêmê pêşveçûna çandinî û bikaranîna avdaniyê, nivîsîn, teker û camê ne.

Termînolojî[biguherîne | çavkaniyê biguherîne]

Nexşeya Hîvika biadan (sala 1916an) ji aliyê James Henry Breasted ve, ku bikaranîna vê bêjeyê populer kiriye.

Têgiha Fertile Crescent ji hêla arkeolog James Henry Breasted ve di Outlines of European History (1914) "Navnîşên Dîroka Ewropayê" û Ancient Times, A History of the Early World (1916) "Serdemên Kevnar, Dîroka Cîhana Kevnare" de hatiye populer kirin.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Çavkanî[biguherîne | çavkaniyê biguherîne]

  1. Kerîm, Alî Huseîn (2004). Destan-Helbest û Mîtolojiya Huriyan (PDF). Constanta: Instîtûta Kurdî ji bo Lêkolîn û Zanist-Almanya. r. 129. ISBN 3-93093-64-6 Check |isbn= value: length (alîkarî).
  2. Erdnîgarî (PDF).
  3. Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (13 January 2013). The Essence of Anthropology (3rd ed.). Belmont, California: Cengage Learning. r. 104. ISBN 978-1111833442.
  4. Ancient Mesopotamia/India. Culver City, California: Social Studies School Service. 2003. r. 4. ISBN 978-1560041665.
  5. Abt, Jeffrey (2011). American Egyptologist: the life of James Henry Breasted and the creation of his Oriental Institute. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. rr. 193–194, 436. ISBN 978-0-226-0011-04.
  6. Goodspeed, George Stephen (1904). A History of the ancient world: for high schools and academies. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. rr. 5–6.
  7. Breasted, James Henry (1914). "Earliest man, the Orient, Greece, and Rome" (PDF). In Robinson, James Harvey; Breasted, James Henry; Beard, Charles A. (eds.). Outlines of European history, Vol. 1. Boston: Ginn. rr. 56–57. "The Ancient Orient" map is inserted between pages 56 and 57.
  8. Breasted, James Henry (1916). Ancient times, a history of the early world: an introduction to the study of ancient history and the career of early man (PDF). Boston: Ginn. rr. 100–101. "The Ancient Oriental World" map is inserted between pages 100 and 101.
  9. Clay, Albert T. (1924). "The so-called Fertile Crescent and desert bay". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 44: 186–201. doi:10.2307/593554. JSTOR 593554.
  10. Kuklick, Bruce (1996). "Essay on methods and sources". Puritans in Babylon: the ancient Near East and American intellectual life, 1880–1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press. r. 241. ISBN 978-0-691-02582-7. Textbooks...The true texts brought all of these strands together, the most important being James Henry Breasted, Ancient Times: A History of the Early World (Boston, 1916), but a predecessor, George Stephen Goodspeed, A History of the Ancient World (New York, 1904), is outstanding. Goodspeed, who taught at Chicago with Breasted, antedated him in the conception of a 'crescent' of civilization.