- /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕, ʝ˕] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/. Then, they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ] like English b, d, g, j, but they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts. When it is distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions Şablon:Harvcol.
- Most speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from Şablon:IPAslink; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Şablon:Harvcoltxt for more information.
- The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ contrast only before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the neutralized nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
- The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
- Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between ⟨s⟩ (Şablon:IPAslink) and soft ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩ (Şablon:IPAslink). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as Şablon:IPAslink. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft ⟨c⟩, ⟨z⟩ and even ⟨s⟩ as Şablon:IPAslink, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Şablon:Harvcoltxt for more information.
- [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
- The letter ⟨x⟩ represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas).
- The letter ⟨h⟩ represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
- /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as [tʃ] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
- The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with Şablon:IPAslink and Şablon:IPAslink.
- Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259