Halloween

Ji Wîkîpediya, ensîklopediya azad.
Halloween
Jack-o'-Lantern 2003-10-31.jpg
Kişandina Jack-o'-Lantern kevneşopiya hevpar a cejna cindaran e
Binavkirin
  • Hallowe'en
  • All Hallowe'en
  • All Hallows' Eve
  • All Saints' Eve
ZêrevanîkirîXirîstiyanên rojavayî û gelek ne-xirîstiyan li seranserê cîhanê[1]
CureXiristiyanî
WateYekem roja Allhallowtide
Kêfî

Xapandin-an-dermankirin,
cil û berg,
partî,
cek-o'-fanos,
pêxistina agir,
kehanet,
pişka sêvê,

cazîfeyên xedar.
ÇavdêrîXizmetên dêrê,[2] nimêj,[3] rojî girtin,[1] û zerevanî[4]
Dîrok31'ê kewçêrê
Têkildar

Totensonntag,
Krîsmisa şîn,
Pêncşema Miriyan,
Samhain,
Hop-tu-Naa,
Calan Gaeaf,
Allantîd,
Roja Miriyan,
Roja Reformasyonê,
Roja Hemû Pîrozan,

Şeva Ziyanê (cfzêrevanî)

Halloween[5], Cejna cindaran[çavkanî hewce ye], Cejna caziyan[çavkanî hewce ye] an jî cejna şevê[çavkanî hewce ye] kêmtir wekî Allhalloween tê zanîn[6] an Hemû Pîrozên Şevê[7], pîrozbahiyekî di 31ê çiriya pêşîn de, li gelek welatan, bi taybetî li welatên anglosakson, şeva cejna Xiristiyanên Rojavayê ya Roja Hemî Pîrozan e. Ew bi pîrozkirina Allhallowtide dest pê dike,[8] dema ku di sala merasîmê ji bo bîranîna miriyan, di nav de pîroz, şehîd û hemû miriyan tê vediqetîne.[9] [10]

Teorî, destnîşan dike ku gelek kevneşopiyên cejna şevê ji cejnên dirûnê yên keltîkî ye, bi taybetî festîvala galîkî ya Samhain e, ku bandora kokên paganî bûne tê bawerkirin.[11][12][13][14] Hin pêşdetir diçin û pêşniyara Samhain ji aliyê Dêra destpêkê ve wekî roja hemû cejnê dikin, ku digel êvara wê xiristiyanî bûye.[15] Akademîsyenên din bawer dikin ku cejna şevê tenê wekî cejnekî bi xiristiyan dest pê kiriye, ku nobeda roja hemû şevê ye.[16] [17] [18] Cejn bi sedsalan li Îrlenda û Skotlendayê dihat pîrozkirin, ku koçberên Îrlendî û Skotlendî di sedsala 19'an de gelek adetên cejnê birin Amerîkaya Bakur,[19] û paşê bi bandora Amerîkî cejna şevê di dawiya sedsala 20'an de û di destpêka sedsala 21'an de li welatên din belav bû.[20]

Çalakiyên Cejnê ya popûler di nav xapandin-an-dermankirin (an jî xêzkirin û giyankirina têkildar), beşdarbûna şahiyên cil û bergên cejna caziyan, xêzkirina kumikên di nav fenerên jack-o'-lantern, pêxistina agirê, xistina sêvan, lîstikên fêlbazî, lîstina qeşengan, serdana seyrangehên balkêşiya cindar, çîrokên tirsnak û temaşekirina fîlimên tirsnak an cejna cindar vegotin.[21] Hin kesên ayînên olî yên Xiristiyanî yên Êvara Hemû Xiristiyanan dikin, tevlî beşdarbûna karûbarên dêrê û pêxistina mûmên li ser gorên miriyan dibin,[22] [23] [24] ku ew her çend cejnekî laîk e.[25] [26] [27] Hin xirîstiyan dîroka di şeva hemû pîrozbahiyê de dev ji goşt berdidin, ku kevneşopiya roja nobetê di xwarina hin xwarinên zebzeyan de, di nav de sêv, pancakên kartol û kekên giyanî xuya dike.[28] [29] [30] [31]

Etîmolojî[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

Peyv wekî sernavê Robert Burns ' "Halloween" (1785), xuyakirina helbesta kevneşopiya ji aliyê Skotlendan ve tê xwendin.

Peyva Halloween an Hallowe'en ("êvara ezîzan"[32]) bi eslê xwe xirîstiyanî ye;[33] [34] ku peyvekî hevwate ya "All Hallows Eve" di îngilîzî ya kevn de hatiye tesdîqkirin. Peyva hallowe[']en ji forma Skotlendî ya All Hallows' Eve (êvara beriya Roja Hemû Hallows) tê zanîn: hetta peyva Skotî ji bo "eve" an "êvarê" ye, û bi peymana e'en an een; [35] (Hemû) Hallow(s) E(v)en bûne Hallowe'en.

Cil û berg[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

Cil û bergûn cejnê bi kevneşopî li gorî fîgurên wekî vampîr, giyan, îskelet, sêrbazên tirsnak û şeytan hatine çêkirin.[36] Bi demê re, hilbijartina kincan dirêj bû ku karakterên populer ên ji çîrok, navdar û arketîpên gelemperî yên wekî ninjas û prenses vedihewîne.

Dikana Cejna şevê li Derry, Îrlendaya Bakur, masûlkan difiroşe

Xwarin[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

Kûndirên ji bo firotanê di dema Cejna Şevê de

Di Êvara Hemû Pîrozbahiyê de, gelek mezhebên xiristiyanên rojavayî teşwîq dikin ku dev ji goşt bernedin, ku bi vê rojê ve cûrbecûr xwarinên nebatî peyda dikin.[37]

Lîsteya xwarinên bi cejnê re têkildar in:

Binêre jî[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

Çavkanî[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

  1. a b Xeletiya çavkanî: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Fasting
  2. "Service for All Hallows' Eve". The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Church Publishing, Inc. 2004. r. [[[:Şablon:Google books]] 108]. ISBN 978-0-89869-409-3. This service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place.
  3. Anne E. Kitch (2004). The Anglican Family Prayer Book. Church Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8192-2565-8. Ji orîjînalê di 25 kanûna paşîn 2017 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2011. All Hallow's Eve, which later became known as Halloween, is celebrated on the night before All Saints' Day, November 1. Use this simple prayer service in conjunction with Halloween festivities to mark the Christian roots of this festival.
  4. The Paulist Liturgy Planning Guide. Paulist Press. 2006. ISBN 978-0-8091-4414-3. Ji orîjînalê di 31 çiriya pêşîn 2017 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2011. Rather than compete, liturgy planners would do well to consider ways of including children in the celebration of these vigil Masses. For example, children might be encouraged to wear Halloween costumes representing their patron saint or their favorite saint, clearly adding a new level of meaning to the Halloween celebrations and the celebration of All Saints' Day.
  5. Thomson, Thomas; Annandale, Charles (1896). A History of the Scottish People from the Earliest Times: From the Union of the kingdoms, 1706, to the present time. Blackie. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2011. Of the stated rustic festivals peculiar to Scotland the most important was Hallowe'en, a contraction for All-hallow Evening, or the evening of All-Saints Day, the annual return of which was a season for joy and festivity.
  6. Palmer, Abram Smythe (1882). Folk-etymology. Johnson Reprint. r. 6.
  7. "NEDCO Producers' Guide". 31–33. Northeast Dairy Cooperative Federation. 1973. Originally celebrated as the night before All Saints' Day, Christians chose November first to honor their many saints. The night before was called All Saints' Eve or hallowed eve meaning holy evening. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (alîkarî)
  8. "Tudor Hallowtide". National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. 2012. Ji orîjînalê di 6 çiriya pêşîn 2014 de hat arşîvkirin. Hallowtide covers the three days – 31 October (All-Hallows Eve or Hallowe'en), 1 November (All Saints) and 2 November (All Souls).
  9. Hughes, Rebekkah (29 çiriya pêşîn 2014). "Happy Hallowe'en Surrey!" (PDF). The Stag. University of Surrey. r. 1. Ji orîjînalê (PDF) di 19 çiriya paşîn 2015 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2015. Halloween or Hallowe'en, is the yearly celebration on October 31st that signifies the first day of Allhallowtide, being the time to remember the dead, including martyrs, saints and all faithful departed Christians.
  10. Davis, Kenneth C. (29 kanûna pêşîn 2009). Don't Know Much About Mythology: Everything You Need to Know About the Greatest Stories in Human History but Never Learned (bi îngilîzî). HarperCollins. r. 231. ISBN 978-0-06-192575-7.
  11. Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. r. 66. ISBN 978-0-252-02931-8. Roja wergirtinê: 14 kanûna pêşîn 2015. The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival. Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared.
  12. Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516896-9. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2011. Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day. But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.
  13. Austrian information. 1965. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2011. The feasts of Hallowe'en, or All Hallows Eve and the devotions to the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day are both mixtures of old Celtic, Druid and other pagan customs intertwined with Christian practice.
  14. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. 1999. r. 408. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2011. Halloween, also called All Hallows' Eve, holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31, the eve of All Saints' Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same date.
  15. Roberts, Brian K. (1987). The Making of the English Village: A Study in Historical Geography. Longman Scientific & Technical. ISBN 978-0-582-30143-6. Roja wergirtinê: 14 kanûna pêşîn 2015. Time out of time', when the barriers between this world and the next were down, the dead returned from the grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked abroad was a twice- yearly reality, on dates Christianised as All Hallows' Eve and All Hallows' Day.
  16. O’Donnell, Hugh; Foley, Malcolm (18 kanûna pêşîn 2008). Treat or Trick? Halloween in a Globalising World (bi îngilîzî). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. r. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-4438-0265-9. Hutton (1996, 363) identifies Rhys as a key figure who, along with another Oxbridge academic, James Frazer, romanticised the notion of Samhain and exaggerated its influence on Halloween. Hutton argues that Rhys had no substantiated documentary evidence for claiming that Halloween was the Celtic new year, but inferred it from contemporary folklore in Wales and Ireland. Moreover, he argues that Rhys: "thought that [he] was vindicated when he paid a subsequent visit to the Isle of Man and found its people sometimes called 31 October New Year's Night (Hog-unnaa) and practised customs which were usually associated with 31 December. In fact the flimsy nature of all this evidence ought to have been apparent from the start. The divinatory and purificatory rituals on 31 October could be explained by a connection to the most eerie of Christian feasts (All Saints) or by the fact that they ushered in the most dreaded of seasons. The many "Hog-unnaa" customs were also widely practised on the conventional New Year's Eve, and Rhys was uncomfortably aware that they might simply have been transferred, in recent years, from then Hallowe'en, to increase merriment and fundraising on the latter. He got round this problem by asserting that in his opinion (based upon no evidence at all) the transfer had been the other way round." ... Hutton points out that Rhy's unsubstantiated notions were further popularised by Frazer who used them to support an idea of his own, that Samhain, as well as being the origin of Halloween, had also been a pagan Celtic feast of the dead—a notion used to account for the element of ghosts, witches and other unworldly spirits commonly featured within Halloween. ... Halloween's preoccupation with the netherworld and with the supernatural owes more to the Christian festival of All Saints or All Souls, rather than vice versa.
  17. Barr, Beth Allison (28 çiriya pêşîn 2016). "Guess what? Halloween is more Christian than Pagan". The Washington Post (bi îngilîzî). Roja wergirtinê: 15 çiriya pêşîn 2020. It is the medieval Christian festivals of All Saints’ and All Souls’ that provide our firmest foundation for Halloween. From emphasizing dead souls (both good and evil), to decorating skeletons, lighting candles for processions, building bonfires to ward off evil spirits, organizing community feasts, and even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early modern traditions of “Hallowtide” fit well with our modern holiday. So what does this all mean? It means that when we celebrate Halloween, we are definitely participating in a tradition with deep historical roots. But, while those roots are firmly situated in the medieval Christian past, their historical connection to “paganism” is rather more tenuous.
  18. "All Hallows' Eve" (bi îngilîzî). British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 çiriya pêşîn 2011. Roja wergirtinê: 29 çiriya pêşîn 2020. However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain and some question the existence of a specific pan-Celtic religious festival which took place on 31st October/1st November.
  19. Brunvand, Jan (editor). American Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2006. p.749
  20. Colavito, Jason. Knowing Fear: Science, Knowledge and the Development of the Horror Genre. McFarland, 2007. pp.151–152
  21. Paul Fieldhouse (17 nîsan 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. r. 256. ISBN 978-1-61069-412-4.
  22. Skog, Jason (2008). Teens in Finland. Capstone. r. 31. ISBN 978-0-7565-3405-9. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church. It is customary to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is a part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion worth remembering. In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are known as valomeri, or seas of light. Finns visit cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased.
  23. "All Hallows Eve Service" (PDF). Duke University. 31 çiriya pêşîn 2012. Ji orîjînalê (PDF) di 5 çiriya pêşîn 2013 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 31 gulan 2014. About All Hallows Eve: Tonight is the eve of All Saints Day, the festival in the Church that recalls the faith and witness of the men and women who have come before us. The service celebrates our continuing communion with them, and memorializes the recently deceased. The early church followed the Jewish custom that a new day began at sundown; thus, feasts and festivals in the church were observed beginning the night before.
  24. "The Christian Observances of Halloween". National Republic. 15: 33. 5 gulan 2009. Among the European nations the beautiful custom of lighting candles for the dead was always a part of the "All Hallow's Eve" festival.
  25. Hynes, Mary Ellen (1993). Companion to the Calendar. Liturgy Training Publications. r. 160. ISBN 978-1-56854-011-5. In most of Europe, Halloween is strictly a religious event. Sometimes in North America the church's traditions are lost or confused.
  26. Kernan, Joe (30 çiriya pêşîn 2013). "Not so spooky after all: The roots of Halloween are tamer than you think". Cranston Herald. Ji orîjînalê di 26 çiriya paşîn 2015 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 31 çiriya pêşîn 2015. By the early 20th century, Halloween, like Christmas, was commercialized. Pre-made costumes, decorations and special candy all became available. The Christian origins of the holiday were downplayed.
  27. Braden, Donna R.; Village, Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield (1988). Leisure and entertainment in America. Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village. ISBN 978-0-933728-32-5. Roja wergirtinê: 2 hezîran 2014. Halloween, a holiday with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, came to assume major proportions as a children's festivity.
  28. Santino, p. 85
  29. All Hallows' Eve (Diana Swift), Anglican Journal
  30. Mahon, Bríd (1991). Land of Milk and Honey: The Story of Traditional Irish Food & Drink (bi îngilîzî). Poolbeg Press. r. 138. ISBN 978-1-85371-142-8. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained. Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.
  31. Fieldhouse, Paul (17 nîsan 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions (bi îngilîzî). ABC-CLIO. r. 254. ISBN 978-1-61069-412-4. Ji orîjînalê di 31 çiriya pêşîn 2017 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 13 tebax 2017. In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.
  32. Luck, Steve (1998). "All Saints' Day". The American Desk Encyclopedia (bi îngilîzî). Oxford University Press. r. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-521465-9.
  33. "DOST: Hallow Evin". Dsl.ac.uk. Ji orîjînalê di 29 nîsan 2014 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 13 çiriya pêşîn 2013.
  34. The A to Z of Anglicanism (Colin Buchanan), Scarecrow Press, p. 8
  35. "E'EN, Een". Scottish National Dictionary (1700–). Cild III =. 1952. snd8629.
  36. "Halloween". Encyclopædia Britannica. Ji orîjînalê di 30 çiriya pêşîn 2012 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 25 çiriya pêşîn 2012.
  37. Mader, Isabel (30 îlon 2014). "Halloween Colcannon". Simmer Magazine. Ji orîjînalê di 5 çiriya pêşîn 2014 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 3 çiriya pêşîn 2014. All Hallow's Eve was a Western (Anglo) Christian holiday that revolved around commemorating the dead using humor to intimidate death itself. Like all holidays, All Hallow's Eve involved traditional treats. The church encouraged an abstinence from meat, which created many vegetarian dishes.

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Girêdanên derve[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]