Zimanê spanî

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Spanî
Castellano, español
Welatên lê tê axaftin Spanya, Amerîkayê Latînî, Gîneya Ekvatoral
Axiverên zimanê zikmakî 483 mîlyon axiverên zikmakî[1]
Malbata zimanî
Şiklê kevn
Kodên zimanî
ISO 639-1 es
ISO 639-2 spa
ISO 639-3 spa
Detailed SVG map of the Hispanophone world.svg


Zimanê Spanî[biguherîne]

Spanî (bi spanî: español) an jî kastîlî (bi spanî: castellano) zimanekî malbata zimanê nûlatînî ye û li Kastîlyaye ku dikeve navenda Nîvgirava Îberî, peyda bûye. Niha bi 483 milyon axiverên ve yekî girîngtirîn zimanê cihanî bûye[çavkanî pêwîst e]. Axiverê zimanê spanî herî zêde li Spanya û Amerîkayê ye. Zimanê spanî piştê zimanê çîniya mandarin zimanê duyem e ku herî zêde axiverên xwecîhiya wî heye. Piştî îngîlîzî, çînîya mandarîn û zimanê hîndî çaremîn zimanê ku li cihanê herî zêde tê axaftin.

Spanî zimanekî di nav beşa galî, îberî û romanî de ye. Zimanê spanî piştê hilweşandina Împeratoriya Romê ya Rojava di 5em sedsalê de, ji zaravayên latîniya gelêrî (vulgar latin) li herêma Romê ya Hispaniayê werar bûye. Şopa spanî bi nivîsên latînî ya herî kevin di sedsala 9an de li bakurê Hispaniayê hatiye dîtin û li bajarê Toledo yekem nivîsên sîstematîk bi vî zimanê hatiye bikaranîn. Toledo di sedsalê 13an de bajarekî giring li Keyaniya Kastîlya bû. Sersala 1492, zimanê spanî ji alîye wekîlên împaratorîya Spanîya bi taybetî li Amerîkayê û cihên din li Afrîkayê, Okyanûsya û Filîpînê belav bu.

Hêjmara Axiverên Pêşbînî[biguherîne]

Tê pêşbînî kirin ku ji 437 milyonê zêdetir axiverên zikmakî ya spanî heye. Instituto Cervantes angaşt dike ku bi pêşbînî 477 milyon kes axiverên zikmakî heye û 572 milyon kes zimanê spanî wek yekemîn ziman an jî zimanê duyemîn diaxive û ji 21 mîlyonê zêdetir xwendekarê zimanê spanî heye.

Navên Zimanê Spanî û Bêjenasî[biguherîne]

Nexşeya welatên Spanî-axiver ku cihên bikar anîna  castellano (sor) û español (şîn)

Navên Ziman[biguherîne]

Li Spanya û li welatên Spanî-Axivêr de ji zimanê spanî re tenê Spanî(Español) nabêjin. Her wekî español , kastîlyano (castellano) jî tê gotin. Kastîlyano zimanê Keyanîya Kastîlyaye û ji zimanên din wek zimanê Galîsî,Baskî,Astûrî, Katalanî,Aragonî û Oksîtanî cudaye.

Makezagona Spanî ya 1978, terma Castellano bo ravekirina zimanê Fermî li dijî zimanên din li Spanyayê (las demás lenguas españolas) bikar tîne. Xwendina Gotara III wek diêt;

  • El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas...
  • Kastîlyan zimanê fermî ya dewleta Spanyaye. ... Zimanên dinên spanî li Civatên Xweserî de zimanê fermî bibe

Royal Akademîya Spanî niha li çapamenî da terma español bikar tîne lê ji 1713 heta sala 1923 zimanê castellano cihê español hatîbu bikar anîn

Bêjenasî[biguherîne]

Terma castellano ji peyva Latînî ya castellanus tê ku wateya castellanus " bi pêwendendarê kela an birc. jixwe peyva Castel tê wateya kela.[2]

ji bo bêjenasîya terma "español" peşnîyazên ciyawaz hatîye pêşkêşkirin. Li gorî Royal Akademîya Spanî español ji peyva hispaniolus ya zimanê Vulgar Latin hatîye dariştin. ew jî peyva latînî ya navê parêzgehê Hispania tê ku li Nivgiravê Îberîa jî nav Hispania de bu.[3]

Dîrok[biguherîne]

Vîzîgot Cartulariesê Valpuesta nivîsen forma kevin ya Latîn, Di 2010 de ji alîyê royal akademîya Spanî wekî tomerê nivîsên peyvê kastîlyanê berê hat dîyar kirin[4]

Zimanê Spanî ji zimanê Vulgar Latîn werar bu ku Ew ziman ji alîyê Romîyan di demê Şerê Duyemînê Pûnîk de, le sereta 210 bZ de li Nîvgravê Îberîya hat.

Nexşeya kronolojîk ku werar buna zimanê spanî li Başûr Rojavayê Ewropa da dîşan dide

Hejmara Spanî-axiverên li gorî dewletên dinê[biguherîne]

Tabloyê li jêrê de hatîye çê kirin hejmara Spanî-axiverên li 78 welatê de nîşan dide.

Tabloya Spanî-Axiverên li Cihanê(grî û * zimanê fermî nîşan dide.)
Welat Nifûs[5] Spanî wek zimanê duyemîn [6] Axiverên zikmakî û axiverên jêhatî ku wek nêzîkê zimanê zikmakî diaxivin [7] Hejmara hemû Axiverên Spanî [7][8][9]
 Meksîk* 127,792,286 [10] 118.463.449 (92.7%)[11] 123.702.933 (96,8%)[1] 125.875.402 (98.5%)[9]
 Dewletên Yekbûyî yên Amerîkayê 327,167,439[12] 41,460,427[13] (13.5%)[14] 41,460,427[15][16]
 Kolombiya* 50,372,424[17] 49,522,424 (98,9%) 49,969,445 (99,2%)[1]
 Spanya* 47,329,981 [18] 43.496.253 (91,9%)[1] 46.383.381 (98%)[19]
 Arjentîn* 45,376,763[20][22] 42,269,777 (95.5%)[23] 44 514 605 (98,1%)[1] 45.104.502 (99.4%)[9]
 Venezuela* 32,605,423[24] 31.507.179 (1,098,244 bi zimanê zikmakîyê din va)[25] 31.725.077 (97.3%)[1] 32.214.158 (98.8%)[9]
 Perû* 32,824,358[26] 27.211.393 (82.9%)[27][28] 29.541.922 (86.6%)[1]
 Şîle* 19,458,310[29] 18 660 519 (281,600 bi zimanê zikmakîyê din va)[30] 18.660.519 (95.9%)[1] 19.322.102 (99.3%)[9]
 Ekuador* 17,424,000[31] 16 204 320 (93%)[32] 16.692.192 (95.8%)[1] 16.845.732 (98.1%)[9]
 Guatemala* 18,055,025[33] 12.620.462 (69.9%)[34] 14.137.085 (78.3%)[1] 15.599.542 (86.4%)[9]
 Kûba* 11,209,628[35] 11 187 209 (99.8%)[1] 11.187.209 (99.8%)[1]
 Komara Domînîk* 10,448,499[36] 10 197 735 (97.6%)[1] 10 197 735 (97.6%)[1] 10.302.220 (99.6%)[9]
 Bolîvya* 11,584,000[37] 7.031.488 (60.7%)[38] 9.614.720 (83%)[1] 10.182.336 (87.9%)[9]
 Hondûras* 9,251,313[39] 9 039 287 (207,750 bi zimanê zikmakîyê din va)[40] 9.039.287 (98.7%)[1]
 El Salvador* 6,765,753[41] 6 745 456 [42] 6.745.456 (99.7%)[1]
 Fransa 65,635,000[43] 477,564 (1%[44] of 47,756,439[45]) 1,910,258 (4%[19] of 47,756,439[45]) 6,685,901 (14%[46] of 47,756,439[45])
 Nîkaragua* 6,218,321[41][5] 6,037,990 (97.1%) (490,124 bi zimanê zikmakîyê din va)[41][47] 6.218.321 (180,331 axiverên netemam)[41]
 Brazîl 211,671,000[48] 460,018 [1] 460,018 6,056,018 [49]
 Îtalya 60,795,612[50] 255,459[51] 1,037,248 (2%[19] of 51,862,391[45]) 5,704,863 (11%[46] of 51,862,391[45])
 Kosta Rîka* 4,890,379[52] 4,806,069 (84,310 bi zimanê zikmakîyê din va)[53] 4.851.256 (99.2%)[9]
 Paraguay* 7,252,672[54] 4,460,393 (61.5%)[55] 4.946.322 (68,2%)[1]
 Panama* 3,764,166[56] 3,263,123 (501,043 bi zimanê zikmakîyê din va)[57] 3.504.439 (93.1%)[9]
 Ûrûguay* 3,480,222[58] 3,330,022 (150,200 bi zimanê zikmakîyê din va)[59] 3.441.940 (98.9%)[9]
 Porto Rîko* 3,474,182[60] 3.303.947 (95.1%)[61] 3.432.492 (98.8%)[9]
 Keyaniya Yekbûyî 64,105,700[62] 120,000[63] 518,480 (1%[19] of 51,848,010[45]) 3,110,880 (6%[46] of 51,848,010[45])
 Filîpîn* 101,562,305[64] 438,882[65] 3,016,773[66][67][68][69][70][71][72]
 Almanya 81,292,400[73] 644,091 (1%[19] of 64,409,146[45]) 2,576,366 (4%[46] of 64,409,146[45])
 Maroko 34,378,000[74] 6,586[75] 6,586 1,664,823 [1][76] (10%)[77]
 Gînêya Rojbendî* 1,622,000[78] 1,683[79] 918,000[9] (90.5%)[9][80]
 Romanya 21,355,849[81] 182,467 (1%[19] of 18,246,731[45]) 912,337 (5%[46] of 18,246,731[45])
 Portûgal 10,636,888[82] 323,237 (4%[19] of 8,080,915[45]) 808,091 (10%[46] of 8,080,915[45])
 Kanada 34,605,346[83] 553,495[84] 643,800 (87%[85] of 740,000[86])[87] 736,653[8]
 Holenda 16,665,900[88] 133,719 (1%[19] of 13,371,980[45]) 668,599 (5%[46] of 13,371,980[45] )
 Swêd 9,555,893[89] 77,912 (1%[44] of 7,791,240[45]) 77,912 (1% of 7,791,240) 467,474 (6%[46] of 7,791,240[45])
 Awistralya 21,507,717[90] 111,400[91] 111,400 447,175[92]
 Belçîka 10,918,405[93] 89,395 (1%[19] of 8,939,546[45]) 446,977 (5%[46] of 8,939,546[45])
 Bênîn 10,008,749[94] 412,515 (Xwendekarên Spanî)[8]
 Peravê Diranfîl 21,359,000[95] 341,073 (Xwendekarên Spanî)[8]
 Polonya 38,092,000 324,137 (1%[19] of 32,413,735[45]) 324,137 (1% of 32,413,735)
 Awistirya 8,205,533 70,098 (1%[19] of 7,009,827[45]) 280,393 (4%[46] of 7,009,827[45])
 Cezayir 33,769,669 223,422[75]
 Belîze 333,200[96] 173,597[75] 173,597[75] 195,597[75] (62.8%)[97]
 Senegal 12,853,259 205,000 (Xwendekarên Spanî)[8]
 Danîmarka 5,484,723 45,613 (1%[19] of 4,561,264[45]) 182,450 (4%[46] of 4,561,264[45])
 Îsraêl 7,112,359 130,000[75] 175,231[98]
 Japon 127,288,419 100,229[99] 100,229 167,514 (60,000 Xwendekarên Spanî)[8]
 Gabon 1,545,255[100] 167,410 (Xwendekarên Spanî[8]
 Swîsre 7,581,520 150,782 (2,24%)[101][102] 150,782 165,202 (14,420 Xwendekarên Spanî[103]
 Îrlenda 4,581,269[104] 35,220 (1%[19] of 3,522,000[45]) 140,880 (4%[46] of 3,522,000[45])
 Fînlenda 5,244,749 133,200 (3%[46] of 4,440,004[45])
 Bulgaristan 7,262,675 130,750 (2%[19] of 6,537,510[45]) 130,750 (2%[46] of 6,537,510[45])
 Bonaire and  Curaçao 223,652 10,699[75] 10,699[75] 125,534[75]
 Norwêc 5,165,800 21,187[105] 103,309[8]
 Çekya 10,513,209[106] 90,124 (1%[46] of 9,012,443[45])
 Macaristan 9,957,731[107] 83,206 (1%[46] of 8,320,614[45])
 Aruba 101,484[108] 6,800[75] 6,800[75] 75,402[75]
 Trînîdad û Tobago 1,317,714[109] 4,100[75] 4,100[75] 65,886[75] (5%)[110]
 Kamerûn 21,599,100[111] 63,560 (Xwendekarên Spanî)[8]
 Andorra 84,484 33,305[75] 33,305[75] 54,909[75]
 Slovenya 35,194 (2%[19] of 1,759,701[45]) 52,791 (3%[46] of 1,759,701[45])
 Nû Zelenda 21,645[112] 21,645 47,322 (25,677 Xwendekarên Spanî)[8]
 Slovakya 5,455,407 45,500 (1%[46] of 4,549,955[45])
 Çîn 1,339,724,852[113] 30,000 (Xwendekarên Spanî)[114]
 Cîbraltar 29,441[115] 22,758 (77.3%[116])
 Lîtvanya 2,972,949[117] 28,297 (1%[46] of 2,829,740[45])
 Lûksembûrg 524,853 4,049 (1%[44] of 404,907[45]) 8,098 (2%[19] of 404,907[45]) 24,294 (6%[46] of 404,907[45])
 Rûsya 143,400,000[118] 3,320[75] 3,320[75] 23,320[75]
 Sahraya Rojava* 513,000[119] n.a.[120] 22,000[75]
 Guam 19,092[121]
 Letonya 2,209,000[122] 13,943 (1%[46] of 1,447,866[45])
 Tirkiye 73,722,988[123] 1,134[75] 1,134[75] 13,480[75][124]
 Kîpros 2%[46] of 660,400[45]
 Hindistan 1,210,193,422[125] 9,750 (Xwendekarên Spanî)[126]
 Estonya 9,457 (1%[46] of 945,733[45])
 Jamaîka 2,711,476[127] 8,000[128] 8,000[128] 8,000[128]
 Namîbya 3,870[129]
 Misir 3,500[130]
 Malta 3,354 (1%[46] of 335,476[45])
 Yekîtiya Ewropayê (ji bilî Spanya)* 460,624,488[131] 2,397,000 (934,984 jixwe hejmarkirî)[132]
Tevahî 7,626,000,000 (Tevahî nifûsa cihah)[133] 476.539.415[134][87] (6,2 %)[135] 498.922.113[87] (6,5 % ) 552.081.838[134][1][136] (7,2 %)[137]

Çavkanî[biguherîne]

Wiki letter w cropped.svg Ev gotar şitlek e. Heke tu bixwazî berfireh bikî, biguherîne bitikîne. (Çawa?)

Kategorî; Zimanên romanî yên bejahiyî yên rojavayî

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  132. Demografía de la lengua española, page 37 Şablon:Webarchive (2,397,000 people speak Spanish as a native language in the E.U. excluded Spain, but It is already counted population who speak Spanish as a native language in France (477,564), Italy (255,459), U.K. (120,000) Sweden (77,912) and Luxemburg (4,049)).
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  134. a b Şablon:E18
  135. 426,515,910 axiverên L1 di sala 2012 (ethnologue Şablon:Webarchive) of 7,097,500,000 kes li cihanê di sala 2012 ([6]): 6%.
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  137. 517,824,310 speakers L1 and L2 in 2012 (ethnologue Şablon:Webarchive) of 7,097,500,000 c 2012 ([7]): 7.3%.