Pîvana Rêhesinê ya Standard

Ji Wîkîpediya, ensîklopediya azad.

Pîvana şopandinê
Awayê veguhastinê
Trambahn · Guhaztina lezgîn
Mînyatur · Modela pîvanê
Li gorî mezinbûnê (lîste)
Lîsteya grafîkî ya pîvana şopandinê

Kêmtir
  Kêmtir
  Panzdeh-înç 381 mm (15 in)

Teng
 
  • 600 mm
  • 610 mm
  • (1 ft 11+58 in)
  • (2 ft)
 
  • 750 mm
  • 760 mm
  • 762 mm
  • (2 ft 5+12 in)
  • (2 ft 5+1516 in)
  • (2 ft 6 in)
 
  • 891 mm
  • 900 mm
  • 914 mm
  • 950 mm
  • (2 ft 11+332 in)
  • (2 ft 11+716 in)
  • (3 ft)
  • (3 ft)1+1332 in)
  Metro 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in)
  Sê ling şeş înç 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
  Çar ling 1,219 mm (4 ft 0 in)
  Çar ling şeş înç 1,372 mm (4 ft 6 in)

  Standard 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)

Fireh
 
  • 1,445 mm
  • 1,450 mm
  • (4 ft 8+78 in)
  • (4 ft 9+332 in)
  Pîvana Leipzigê 1,458 mm (4 ft 9+1332 in)
  Pîvana Torontoyê 1,495 mm (4 ft 10+78 in)
 
  • 1,520 mm
  • 1,524 mm
  • (4 ft 11+2732 in)
  • (5 ft)
 
  • 1,581 mm
  • 1,588 mm
  • 1,600 mm
  • (5 ft 2+14 in)
  • (5 ft 2+12 in)
  • (5 ft 3 in)
  Pîvana Baltîmore 1,638 mm (5 ft 4+12 in)
 
  • 1,668 mm
  • 1,676 mm
  • (5 ft 5+2132 in)
  • (5 ft 6 in)
  Şeş-ling 1,829 mm (6 ft)
  Brunel 2,140 mm (7 ft 14 in)
Guhertina pîvanê
Pîvana veqetandî · Pîvana dualî ·
Veguhestin (lîste· Guherandina bojiyê · Pîvana guherbar
Herêm
Bakurê Amerîkayê · Başûrê Amerîkayê · Ewropa · Awistralya
Nexşeya cihanê, pîvana rêhesinê bi belavbûna herêm

Pîvana Rêhesinê ya Standard pîvana rêka rêbaza 1435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) û 1435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) e. Ji pîvana standard re jî Pîvana Stephenson (piştî George Stephenson) tê gotin, pîvana navneteweyî, pîvana UIC, pîvana yekreng, pîvana normal û pîvana Ewropî li Ewropayê,[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] û SGR li Rojhilatê Afrîkayê. Ew li seranserê cîhanê wekî rêbaza herî berfireh tê bikar anîn, ku bi qasî %55 ji xetên cîhanê bikar tîne. Hemû xetên trênê yên bilez ji bilî yên Rûsya, Fînlenda û Ozbekistanê pîvana standard bikar tînin. Dûrahiya di navbera keviyên hundurê rêlan ve 1435 mm tê diyar kirin, ji bilî Dewletên Yekbûyî û li ser hin rêzikên mîrata Brîtanî, di adetî/yekîneyên împaratorî yên Dewletên Yekbûyî de, tam "çar lingên heşt û nîv înç"[6] bi 1435.1 mm re wekhev tê danasîn.

Rêhesina destpêkê bi rêbazê[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

Pîvana ne-standard[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

Welat Rêhesin Peyvnot
Albanya National rail network 677 km (421 mi)[9][10]
Cezayîr
  • National rail network
  • Algiers Metro, Algiers tramway, Constantine tramway, Oran tramway, Oran Metro
3.973 km (2.469 mi)[11]
Angola 80 km (50 mi)
Arjentîn
  • General Urquiza Railway (except for Ferrocarril Económico Correntino, which used 600 mm (1 ft 11+58 in) before its closing)
  • Buenos Aires Underground
  • Metrotranvía Mendoza
  • Tren de la Costa
Other major lines are mostly 1676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge, with the exception of the 1000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) General Belgrano Railway.
Awistralya
  • Australian Rail Track Corporation
  • Pilbara Railways
  • Sydney Trains
  • Sydney Metro
  • Sydney Light Rail
  • Newcastle Light Rail
  • Parramatta Light Rail
  • NSW TrainLink
  • Melbourne trams
  • Adelaide Metro trams
  • Gold Coast tram
  • Canberra Metro
  • Victorian Trains (Melbourne-Albury via Moonee Valley, Melbourne-Adelaide via Gerringhap, Dimboola, Rainbow Line Yelta Line, Maryborough- Mildura)

1435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) 2.295 km (1.426 mi)

Victoria built the first railways to the 5 ft 3 in (1600 mm) Irish broad gauge. New South Wales then built to the standard gauge, so trains had to stop on the border and passengers transferred, which was only rectified in the 1960s. Queensland still runs on a narrow gauge but there is a standard gauge line from NSW to Brisbane.

Awistirya Österreichische Bundesbahnen 4.859 km (3.019 mi) The Semmering railway has UNESCO World Heritage Site status.
Bangladeş To be used only for rapid transit system, Dhaka Metro Rail 201 km (125 mi)
Belçîka NMBS/SNCB, Brussels Metro and tramway 339 km (211 mi)
Bosniya û Herzegovîna
  • Željeznice Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine and Željeznice Republike Srpske
  • Sarajevo tramways

1.032 km (641 mi)

Brazîl Estrada de Ferro do Amapá; from Uruguaiana to the border with Argentina and from Santana do Livramento to the border with Uruguay (both mixed gauge 1435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) and 1000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in)); remaining tracks at Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul (currently inoperable); Rio de Janeiro Light Rail; São Paulo Metro lines 4 and 5; Salvador Metro Baixada Santista Light Rail 2.055 km (1.277 mi)
Bulgaristan
  • National Railway Infrastructure Company (NRIC)
  • Bulgarian State Railways (BDZ)
  • Sofia Underground[12]
  • part of Sofia Tramway system[13]
Kanada National rail network (including commuter rail operators like GO Transit, West Coast Express, AMT and Union Pearson Express). 49.422 km (30.709 mi)

The Toronto Transit Commission uses 4 ft 10+78 in (1495 mm) gauge on its streetcar and subway lines.

Çîn National rail network 103.144 km (64.091 mi)
Şîle Santiago Metro 140.800 km (87.489 mi)
Kroatya Hrvatske Željeznice
Kolombiya Metro de Medellín, Tren del Cerrejón, Metro de Bogotá
Kûba Ferrocarriles de Cuba 4.266 km (2.651 mi)
Çekya
  • Správa železniční dopravní cesty
  • Prague Metro
  • all tram systems in the country (Liberec has dual gauge 1,000/1,435 mm, with one metre-gauge interurban line to Jablonec nad Nisou)
  • funicular in Prague
9.478 km (5.889 mi)
Danîmarka Banedanmark and Copenhagen Metro
Cîbûtî Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway 100 km (62 mi)
Misir Egyptian National Railways
Estonya Rail Baltica Standard-gauge Rail Baltica railway is under construction and is scheduled to be completed by 2026. Cost studies have been undertaken for a potential overhaul of entire rail network to standard-gauge.[14]
Etiyopya Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway; Addis Ababa Light Rail 659 km (409 mi) Other standard gauge lines under construction.
Fînlenda
  • Rail Baltica
  • Tampere tram
  • Planned: Helsinki–Tallinn Tunnel
Fransa SNCF, RATP (on RER lines)
Gabon Trans-Gabon Railway 669 km
Almanya Deutsche Bahn, numerous local public transport providers 43,468 km (27,010 mi)
Gurcistan Georgian Railway 1435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) constructed between Akhalkalaki to Karstakhi for Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway 26.142 km (16.244 mi)
Gana G-Rail New and extended SGR are being built, with some dual gauge.
Yewnanistan Hellenic Railways Organisation (operated by TrainOSE) All modern Greek networks, except in the Peloponnese
Holy See 1 km (0,62 mi)
Hong Kong MTR (former KCR network – East Rail line, West Rail line, Tuen Ma line, Light Rail) Other MTR lines use 1,432 mm (4 ft 8+38 in) instead of 4 ft 8+12 in[15][16]
Macaristan
  • MÁV, GySEV
  • Budapest Metro
  • HÉV (suburban railway)
  • Tram systems in Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged
  • Budapest Cog-wheel Railway
  • Budapest Castle Hill Funicular
Hindistan Only used for rapid transit and tram, Bangalore Metro, Chennai Metro, Delhi Metro (Phase 2 onwards), Rapid Metro Gurgaon, Hyderabad Metro, Jaipur Metro, Kochi Metro, Kolkata Metro (Line 2 onwards), Lucknow Metro, Mumbai Metro, Nagpur Metro, Navi Mumbai Metro and Trams in Kolkata. The under construction Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor based on the Shinkansen also uses standard gauge. All of the under-construction and future rapid transit systems would be in standard gauge.Delhi–Meerut Regional Rapid Transit System Indian nationwide rail system (Indian Railways) uses 1676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge.
Îndonezya Jakarta LRT, Greater Jakarta LRT (under construction), Trans-Sulawesi Railway (under construction), Jakarta MRT West-east line (planned), and Jakarta-Bandung high speed networks The very first railway line in Indonesia which connects Semarang to Tanggung, which later extended to Yogyakarta was laid to standard gauge.[17] Opened in 1867, it was mostly regauged to 1,067mm/3ft6in during Japanese occupation in 1943, while a short line in Semarang Harbor soldiered on until 1945.[18] Standard gauge railway lines made a return in 2014 on experimental railway line in Aceh.

The railway tracks of Java and Sumatra uses 1067 mm (3 ft 6 in).

Îran Islamic Republic of Iran Railways 12.998 km (8.077 mi)
Iraq Iraqi Republic Railways 485 km (301 mi)
Îrlenda Transport Infrastructure Ireland Luas in Dublin
Îsraêl Israel Railways, CTS, operating the Jerusalem Light Rail
Îtalya Ferrovie dello Stato 16.723 km (10.391 mi)
Japon Shinkansen, JR Hokkaido Naebo Works (see Train on Train), Keisei Line, Keikyu Line, Tokyo Metro (Ginza and Marunouchi lines), Toei Subway (Asakusa and Oedo lines), Kintetsu Railway (Osaka, Nara, Nagoya, Yamada, Kyoto, and Keihanna lines and their associated branches), Keihan Railway, Hankyu Railway, Hanshin Railway, Kyoto Municipal Subway, Kobe Municipal Subway, Osaka Metro, Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway, Fukuoka City Subway (Nanakuma Line), Sendai Subway (Tozai Line), Nagoya Municipal Subway (Higashiyama, Meijō, and Meikō lines), Nose Electric Railway, Yokohama Municipal Subway (Blue and Green lines) 4.251 km (2.641 mi), all electrified
Kenya Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway 485 km (301 mi) Inaugurated 31 May 2017. An extension from Nairobi to Naivasha is under construction. A further extension east to the Ugandan border is planned.
Laos Boten–Vientiane railway 414 km (257 mi), Formally opened on 3 December 2021.
Letonya Rail Baltica Standard-gauge Rail Baltica railway is under construction and is scheduled to be completed by 2026.
Libnan All lines out of service and essentially dismantled
Lîbya Network under construction
Lîtvanya Rail Baltica First phase, from Kaunas to the Polish border, completed in 2015. Second phase, from Kaunas north to Tallinn and from Kaunas to Vilnius, is in the design and construction phase and scheduled to be completed by 2026.
Lûksembûrg Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois
Malezya
  • RapidKL (Kelana Jaya Line, Ampang Line, MRT Kajang Line, MRT Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line)
  • Express Rail Link (KLIA Transit and KLIA Express)
  • MRL East Coast Rail Link (under construction)
  • Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail (planned)
998 km (620 mi)
Meksîk[19]
24,740 km (15,373 mi)
Monako
Montenegro Željeznice Crne Gore 3
Maroko Rail transport in Morocco 2.067 km (1.284 mi)
Nepal Nepal Railways (all tracks except cross-border tracks with India are standard gauge) Under-construction
Holenda Nederlandse Spoorwegen and regional railways.
Nû Zelenda Rail transport in New Zealand 43.755 km (27.188 mi)

1067 mm (3 ft 6 in) narrow gauge chosen due to the need to cross mountainous terrain in the country's interior and the lower cost of construction.

Nîjerya Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway; Lagos Rail Mass Transit Under construction; Abuja to Kaduna section operational.
Korêya Bakur Railways of the DPRK.
Makedonyaya Bakur Macedonian Railways
Norwêc Norwegian National Rail Administration, Rail transport in Norway 4.087 km (2.540 mi)
Pakistan To be used only for rapid transit system, Lahore Metro[20] Pakistan's nationwide rail system (Pakistan Railways) uses 1676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. Any future additions to this system would also be in broad gauge.
Panama Panama Railway; Panama Metro Regauged from 5 ft (1524 mm) in 2001
Paraguay Ferrocarril Presidente Don Carlos Antonio López, now Ferrocarril de Paraguay S.A. (FEPASA) 36 km out of Asunción (used as a tourist steam line), plus 5 km from Encarnación to the border with Argentina, carrying mainly exported soy; the rest of the 441-km line awaits its fate, while redevelopment plans come and go with regularity. The section from west of Encarnación to north of San Salvador, plus the entire San Salvador–Abaí branch, have been dismantled by the railway itself and sold for scrap to raise funds.
Perû Railway Development Corporation,[21] Ferrocarril Central Andino (Callao–Lima–La Oroya–Huancayo and La Oroya–Cerro del Pasco lines), Ferrocarril del sur de Peru (operated by Peru Rail) Matarani–Arequipa–Puno and Puno–Cuzco, Ilo–Moquegua mining railway, Tacna–Arica (Chile) international line, (operated by Tacna Province), Lima electric suburban railway 1.603 km (996 mi)
Filîpîn Operational: LRT 1, LRT 2, and MRT 3. Under construction: MRT 7, MRT 4, LRT 1 South/Cavite Extension, MMS, PNR SLH, PNR NSCR, and Mindanao Railway Phase 1. All current as of March 2022. 5.415 km (3.365 mi) operational, 8.996 km (5.590 mi) under construction, all electrified as of March 2022.
Philippine National Railways network, future LRT and MRT Lines (proposed) nêz. 4,600 km (2,858 mi), 1,159 km (0,720 mi) will be electrified.[22][lower-alpha 1]
Polonya Polskie Koleje Państwowe, Warsaw Metro, most tramway systems throughout the country
Portûgal Planned high-speed lines, Braga and Oporto (Guindais) funiculars, Lisbon Metro, Oporto Metro (partly adapted from former 1000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in); tracks), Metro Transportes do Sul light rail in Almada. All other railways use 1668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in) (broad gauge); some use 1000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in); Decauville uses 500 mm (19+34 in) gauge.
Romanya
  • Căile Ferate Române
  • Bucharest Metro
  • Tram systems in Botoșani, Brăila, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Galați, Ploiești and Timișoara
Rûsya Rostov-on-Don tramway, lines connecting Kaliningrad with Poland
Rwanda Isaka–Kigali Standard Gauge Railway 150 km (93 mi) New railway between Kigali and the Tanzanian town of Isaka is planned.
Erebistana Siûdî Rail transport in Saudi Arabia
Senegal
  • Senegal–Gambia Railway (planned)
  • Senegal–Guinea Bissau Railway (planned)
Serbistan Serbian Railways
Singapûr Mass Rapid Transit 203 km (126 mi)
Slovakya Železnice Slovenskej republiky, Košice tramway system
Slovenya Slovenske železnice
Afrîkaya Başûr Gautrain in Gauteng Province. Rest of country uses 1067 mm (3 ft 6 in) 80 km (50 mi)
Komara Korêyê KRNA
Spanya AVE high-speed rail lines from Madrid to Seville, Málaga, Alicante, Saragossa, Barcelona (-Perthus), Orense, Toledo, Huesca, León and Valladolid, Barcelona Metro (L2, L3, L4, and L5 lines), Barcelona FGC (lines L6 and L7), and Metro Vallès (lines S1, S2, S5, and S55)

All other railways use 1668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in) (broad gauge) and/or 1000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in).

3.622 km (2.251 mi)
Swêd Swedish Transport Administration, Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (Stockholm metro, commuter and light rail lines), tram networks in Gothenburg, Lund and Norrköping
Swîsre Swiss Federal Railways,

BLS, Rigi Railways (rack railway)

SFR 3,134 km in standard gauge and 98 km metre gauge[31]

449 kmŞablon:Clarify

Sûrî Chemins de Fer Syriens 2.052 km (1.275 mi)
Taywan
  • Taiwan High Speed Rail
  • Taipei Rapid Transit System, Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit, Taoyuan Airport MRT and Taichung Metro
  • Kaohsiung Circular light rail and Danhai light rail
60.464 km (37.571 mi)
Tanzanya Tanzania Standard Gauge Railway 202 km (126 mi) line from Dar es Salaam to Morogoro under construction. Contract awarded in 2019 for a 422 km (262 mi) extension from Morogoro to Makutupora.
Taylenda
  • BTS Skytrain, MRT, and Suvarnabhumi Airport Link
  • The State Railway of Thailand uses 1000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in).
80 km (50 mi)
Tûnis Northern part of the network 471 km (293 mi)
Tirkiye Turkish State Railways (also operates Marmaray), metro networks, and tram networks Some tram networks use 1000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in).
Ûganda Uganda Standard Gauge Railway Railway line from Kampala to the Kenyan border is planned.
Mîrgehên Yekbûyî yên Ereban Rail transport in the United Arab Emirates
Keyaniya Yekbûyî Entire rail network in Great Britain (but not Ireland) since standardisation by the Regulating the Gauge of Railways Act 1846 Also used on all metro and tramway systems with the exception of the self-contained Glasgow Subway, which is 4 ft (1219 mm).
DYA
  • Modern national railroad network; see Track gauge in the United States
  • The Washington Metro uses 4 ft 8+14 in (1429 mm) gauge, which is 6 mm (0,24 in) narrower than standard gauge.
  • The Bay Area Rapid Transit system uses 5 ft 6 in (1676 mm).
129.774 km (80.638 mi)
Ûrûguay National rail network 2.900 km (1.800 mi)
Viyetnam Bakurê Hanoi[32] 178 km (111 mi). Includes dual gauge (standard/metre) to the Chinese border.

Binêre jî[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

Çavkanî[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]

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  2. "Japan". Speedrail.ru. 1 çiriya pêşîn 1964. Ji orîjînalê di 29 hezîran 2012 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 20 tebax 2013.
  3. Falco, Francesco (23 kanûna paşîn 2013). "EU support to help convert the Port of Barcelona's rail network to UIC gauge". TEN-T Executive Agency. Ji orîjînalê di 11 sibat 2013 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 20 tebax 2013.
  4. "Spain: opening of the first standard UIC gauge cross-border corridor between Spain and France". UIC Communications. Roja wergirtinê: 20 tebax 2013.
  5. "Displaceable rolling bogie for railway vehicles". IP.com. Ji orîjînalê di 29 hezîran 2013 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 20 tebax 2013.
  6. [1] Thirty-Seventh Congress Session III Chap CXII March 3, 1863 Retrieved on 2019-01-08.
  7. "Public transport in and about the parish". St George-in-the-East Church. London. London and Blackwall Railway; London, Tilbury & Southend Railway.[Girêdan daimî miriye]
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  9. "Albania". The World Factbook. Roja wergirtinê: 1 hezîran 2016.
  10. "CIA data". Ji orîjînalê di 11 kanûna paşîn 2019 de hat arşîvkirin.
  11. "Algeria". The World Factbook. Roja wergirtinê: 1 hezîran 2016.
  12. "Metropolitan Sofia". Metropolitan.bg. Ji orîjînalê di 18 tebax 2009 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 7 kanûna pêşîn 2011.
  13. "Sofia Public Transport Co". Ji orîjînalê di 10 tebax 2006 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 1 hezîran 2016.
  14. "Euroopa rööpmelaiusele üleminek läheks maksma 8,7 miljardit eurot". 5 îlon 2022.
  15. "香港鐵路(MTR)". 2427junction.com. 15 sibat 2006. Roja wergirtinê: 20 tebax 2013.
  16. "Hong Kong's MTR System". Roof and Facade. 12 adar 2007. Ji orîjînalê di 9 hezîran 2013 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 7 kanûna pêşîn 2011.
  17. "History of Railways in Indonesia". keretapi.tripod.com. Roja wergirtinê: 25 gulan 2021.
  18. "Nederlands-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij". searail.malayanrailways.com. Roja wergirtinê: 25 gulan 2021.
  19. "Mexlist". 2007. Roja wergirtinê: 29 çiriya paşîn 2007.
  20. "SECTION - 3 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT" (PDF). EIA of Construction of Lahore Orange Line Metro Train Project (Ali Town –Dera Gujran). Environmental Protection Department. Roja wergirtinê: 25 kanûna paşîn 2017.
  21. "Ferrocarril Central Andino". Railroad Development Corporation. 2007. Roja wergirtinê: 29 çiriya paşîn 2007.
  22. "Philippines approves standard gauge for all new lines". 10 tebax 2016. Roja wergirtinê: 12 tîrmeh 2020.
  23. "Biz sector calls on gov't. to prioritize Mindanao railway system". Philippine Information Agency. 27 çiriya paşîn 2018. Roja wergirtinê: 20 nîsan 2021.
  24. Dela Paz, Chrisee (13 îlon 2017). "NEDA Board approves Metro Manila Subway". Rappler. Roja wergirtinê: 14 îlon 2017.
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  26. Villanueva, Joann (22 kanûna paşîn 2019). "PNR asks for feasibility of Cabanatuan-Makati line". Philippine News Agency. Roja wergirtinê: 2 tebax 2020.
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  29. Cordero, Ted (4 tîrmeh 2018). "Tugade says LRT1 Cavite extension to be completed in 2021". GMA News Online (bi American English). Roja wergirtinê: 8 tîrmeh 2018.
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  32. "Railway Infrastructure". Vietnam Railways. 2005. Ji orîjînalê di 18 nîsan 2010 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 29 çiriya paşîn 2007.

Girêdanên derve[biguhêre | çavkaniyê biguhêre]


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